It is generally accepted that a textile is a fabric made from fibres (Smatra se da je tekstilna — tkanine izrađene .) But Figure 1 shows that the fibres may either be converted into yarn first and then the yarns put together to make fibres, or the fibres can be converted directly into a fabric. ( first and then the yarns put together to make fibres, or the fibres can be converted directly into a fabric. ( Slika 1 pokazuje da vlakna mogu biti prvi pretvoriti u predivo i onda se od ove tkanine prediva ili vlakana može se izravno pretvoriti u tkaninu.)
Figure 1 ( 1).
- Textiles — Tekstil.
- Fibres — vlakana.
- Filament — tekstil navoj.
- Staple — elementarne (tekstilna) vlakana.
- Yarn — pređe.
- Fabrics — tkanina.
- Woven fabric — tkani proizvodi.
- Knitted fabric — pletene dresove.
- Braided fabric — tkanine.
- Lace fabric — čipke tkanine.
- Net fabric — tila.
- Felt fabric — netkani filcanje proizvod, osjetio.
- Bonded fibre fabric — lijepljene netkanih tkanina.
But not all fibres are suitable for textile purposes because a textile fibre must possess sufficient length fineness strength and flexibility to be suitable for manufacture into fabrics. ( to be suitable for manufacture into fabrics. ( svi vlakana su pogodne za tekstil, kao tekstilna vlakna mora biti dovoljno dug, visoke kvalitete, čvrstoće i elastičnosti da se pogodan za izradu tkanina.)
The basic structural elements of all textiles woven fabrics knitted and bonded fabrics braids laces ) are staples and filaments (Osnovni strukturni elementi tekstilnih materijala (tkanine, pletene i netkani tkanine, trake, vezice) su tekstil (osnovni) vlakana i tekstilnih .) These two terms – staple and filament – represent the two basic forms of textile fibres. ( – represent the two basic forms of textile fibres. ( dva termina — tekstil (osnovni), vlakna i tekstilnog prediva — su dva glavna oblika tekstilnih vlakana.)
Staple is the name given to fibres of limited length used for manufacturing of yarn and textile products. ( and textile products. ( vlakna — vlakna ograničene dužine, se koristi za proizvodnju prediva .) An example of a natural staple fibre is cotton. ( vlakana pamuka. .) An example of a natural staple fibre is cotton. ( prirodnih tekstilnih vlakana -. Pamuk)
Filament is the name given to a fibre of continuous length. ( is the name given to a fibre of continuous length. ( pređa — niz .) An example of a natural filament is silk. ( je svila. .) An example of a natural filament is silk. ( iz prirodnih tekstilnih prediva -. Svila)
All fibres fall into ( vlakna su podijeljeni u):
- natural – obtained from natural sources, such as wool from sheep ( — izvedena iz prirodnih izvora, kao što su ovčje vune);
- chemical – produced from various substances by chemical processes ( — napravljen od raznih supstanci hemijskim procesima).
After cleaning and blending , the fibres are spun into yarn (Nakon čišćenja i miješanje vlakna pospremio u predivo.) Yarn can consist of either staple fibres , or of filaments put together. ( put together. ( može sastojati ili od tekstilnih vlakana, ili tekstilnih vlakana vezanih .) This is then processed into fabric in a weaving mill or knitting mill (Osim toga, ona se pretvara u tkaninu na tkanje ili .) The next stage, called finishing , includes various mechanical and chemical processes for ( fazu, pod nazivom trim, uključuje različite mehaničke i kemijske procese):
- Removal of defects or foreign matter (otklanjanje nedostataka ili smeće).
- Bleaching (izbjeljivanje).
- Removal of moisture (uklanjanje vlage).
- Dyeing (bojenje).
- Printing (ispis).
The appearance of the fabric may also be improved by napping shearing pressing brushing , and polishing (Izgled tkiva može poboljšati Napping, šišanje krpom, pritiskom, čišćenje i poliranje.)
After finishing, the woven material is ready for delivery to ( za isporuku (nakon završetka tkanine spreman za isporuku):
- A manufacturer of textile products such as clothing household linens and bedding upholstery rugs and carpets (Proizvođač tekstilnih proizvoda, kao što su odjeća, posteljina tkanine i komad za kućanstvo stavke, posteljina, presvlake, tepisi i prostirke).
- A retailer, who sells it to individuals to make clothes or household articles such as curtains (Malo, koje prodaje na ljude za odjeću ili kućanskih predmeta, kao što su zavjese.)
Various techniques and processes are used to produce fibres of different qualities (za proizvodnju vlakana različitih kvaliteta koristeći se različitim metodama i procesima):
- Acetate (acetat platno).
- Cotton (pamuk).
- Linen (posteljina krpom).
- Nylon (najlon).
- Polyester (poliester).
- Rayon (viskoza, rayon).
- Silk (svila).
- Wool (vuna).
Techniques and processes
- Blending (miješanje).
- Braiding (tkanje).
- Carding (češljanje, zadirkivanjem).
- Embroidering (vez).
- Fibre processing (vlakana tretman).
- Knitting (kukičanje).
- Lace-making (čipke odluka, proizvodnja vezice).
- Net-making (setevyazanie).
- Spinning (vrti).
- Weaving (proces tkanja).
Qualities of fibres
- Ability to withstand laundering or dry-cleaning (sposobnost da izdrži pranje ili kemijsko čišćenje).
- Absorption (apsorpcija).
- Crease control (kontrola nabora).
- Elasticity (elastičnost).
- Fineness (visoke kvalitete).
- Flexibility (fleksibilnost, elastičnost).
- Length (dužina).
- Reaction to heat and light (reakcija na toplinu i svjetlost).
- Shrinking control (kontrola kompresije).
- Strength (otpornost na deformacije).
- Wash and wear (koji ne zahtijeva peglanje nakon pranja).
Looking after your fabrics is important if you want to make them last. Care labels tell you about ( želite da se tkanina traje dugo nakon što je potrebno da gleda etikete na odjeći ti ovo.):
|Washing (praonica)||Indicates that normal (maximum) washing conditions may be used at the appropriate temperature; the number indicates the maximum temperature ( mogu se koristiti na odgovarajućoj temperaturi; Indicates that normal (maximum) washing conditions may be used at the appropriate temperature; the number indicates the maximum temperature ( Indicates that normal (maximum) washing conditions may be used at the appropriate temperature; the number indicates the maximum temperature ( temperatura pranja)|
|Bleaching (izbjeljivanje)||Means that chlorine bleach may be used ( praonica izbjeljivač koji sadrži klor)|
|Ironing (peglanje)||Means that a hot iron may be used ( (Mogu se peglati)|
|Dry-cleaning (suho)||Indicates that the garment must be professionally cleaned ( (Pokazuje da je odjeća potrebna profesionalno čišćenje)|
|Tumble drying (sušenje u rotirajućeg bubnja)||Means that the garment may be tumble dried ( (Može se sušiti u rotirajući bubanj)|
I sada nudimo da izvrši sljedeće zadatke.
- Read the information above. Mark the following statements T (true) or F (false). Give reasons.
- A textile is a fabric always made from fibres.
- All fibres are suitable for textile purposes.
- Filament is a fibre of continuous length.
- Staple is a fibre of limited length.
- Fibres can be spun into yarn or made into fabrics.
- Classify the following fabrics into their fibre type – natural (N) or synthetic (S). Then choose from the box below which characteristics best describe each fabtic.
Fabric Fibre type Characteristics Cotton Linen Nylon Polyester Silk Wool a) Good insulator; luxurious, soft to the touch.
b) Good strength, twice as strong as cotton; crisp to the touch.
c) Lightweight; easy to wash; resists shrinkage and wrinkling.
d) Luxurious; thinnest of all natural fibres.
e) Soft to the touch; absorbent.
f) Strong; resistant to most chemicals.
- Below are the instructions for how to look after your fabrics. Complete the texts using the words below.
* Dry-cleanable, * drying, * hand-washable, * machine-washable, * shrinkage, * stain, * stretching, * sunlight
When caring for your fabrics, remember that:
is easy to care for. It is (a) ______ and dry-cleanable and has good colour retention.
is twice as strong as cotton and hand-washable or (b) ______.
is (c) _____ or dry-cleanable, but has poor resistance to prolonged exposure to (d) ______.
is easy to wash, resist (e) ______ and wrinkling, is fast (f) ______, but has poor resistance to continuous sunlight.
is resistant to (g) ______; can be washed or dry-cleaned; is quick drying and wrinkle resistant; because of its low absorbency, (h) ______ removal can be a problem.
Međutim, nismo spomenuli druga vrsta tkiva — «inteligentnih tkanina» intelligent fabrics Donosimo vam video na ovu temu:
It’s the fashion show season, and in parallel, Paris has been hosting the largest textile show in the world – “ Premiere Vision ” . Seven hundred and forty-two exhibitors from thirty countries presented their offerings for the “ Autumn – Winter 2007-2008 ” seasons. And this year some special guests – so-called intelligent fabrics – textiles, for example, that have built-in protection against staining.
- Intelligent fabrics — Intelligent tkanina.
- Built-in protection against staining — «ugrađeni» zaštita od mrlja.
If we imagine normal cloth being flat, with nanotechnologies the cloth takes a form a little like mountain. The structure’s invisible, of course, and dirt can’t stick to a material like that. It runs off. So, here I’ll put a bit of ketchup on and I’ll take some water and there you see it’s a white cloth, and you can rinse off the dirt immediately.
- Flat — stan.
- Invisible — nevidljiv.
- Dirt can’t stick to a material — prljavština ne drže materijala.
- To run off — odvod.
- To rinse off the dirt — sprati prljavštinu /li.
Stain resistant materials, bacteria resistant materials, mosquito resistant materials, materials that can absorb smell or reduce perspiration. Materials that can measure your heart beat, or your breathing pattern. Textiles that are totally impermeable, textiles that are ultra absorbent, cosmetic textiles that moisten the skin, or apply perfume.
- Stain resistant material — gryazestoyky materijal.
- Bacteria resistant material — bakterija materijal.
- Mosquito resistant materials — protiv komaraca stvari.
- Absorb smell — da apsorbira miris.
- Reduce perspiration — smanjiti znojenje.
- Impermeable — zapečaćene, nepropusne.
- Moisten the ski n – vlaže kožu.
The world of intelligent textiles is expanding and a multitude of European research centres are part of it.
Here at Centexbel in Belgium, not far from Liege, scientists are dreaming of the next generation of intelligent or functional textiles. Prototype maker Martin Delgeder’s job is to transform these dreams into reality.
- Transform into reality — u stvarnost.
Here we have a pullover that’s entirely knitted. The keyboard is supple. It enables the user to send a range of different commands. It was conceived for handicapped people, to allow them, for example, with a given code to open a garage door, to switch on the television. We’ve also got undergarments that allow you to monitor different body functions: breathing, heartbeat and so on using electrodes that are in direct contact with the body. We can also insert fibre optics into carpet. They are integrated in the production process to make the carpet luminous. They can be used for emergency exit, for example, if there’s a power-cut, or just to create putty patterns within the carpet. We’ve also used fibre optics in knitting. This creates the possibility of luminous knitwear. It can be used for outdoor safety clothing, or it can be stuck on walls and ceilings for decorative effects.
- Supple — meka, elastična.
- It was conceived… — to je dizajniran …
- Handicapped people — osobe sa invaliditetom.
- Undergarment — donje rublje.
- Fibre optics — optička vlakna.
- Power-cut — nestanka struje.
- Putty — a žućkasto-sive boje.
- Luminous knitwear — Luminous trikotaže.
The most complex of these prototypes is probably the textile keyboard which can also function as a simple calculator. Jean Leonard has spent two years working on it. The key, and the interaction of materials that do and don’t conduct electricity.
In addition to the conventional materials, which are electrical insulators we’ve used metallic fibres that do conduct electricity. The principle is that when you don’t apply pressure, there is no contact between two conducting layers. And when you apply pressure, you create a contact between the two layers. In addition to this, there’s a small micro electric component which has been miniaturized as much as possible, so that it disrupts the cloth as little as possible, because the goal is to preserve the characteristics of the textiles: suppleness and comfort.
Suppleness and comfort – those are watchwords for functional and intelligent clothing. Yvette Rogister is in charge of the microbiology lab at the centre. She unlocks the secrets of textiles using this giant microscope. Her research helps to build an understanding how fibres react to the presence of certain nanoparticles. For example, cosmetic nanoparticles that release perfumes into clothes.
- Electrical insulators — električni izolator.
- Conventional materials — materijala na bazi klasičnih tehnika.
- To disrupt — razbiti.
- Suppleness — elastičnost.
There are microcapsules which contain a perfume that’s integrated within the fibres that make up the cloth. What we’ve been looking at here, is how uniformly the microcapsules are spread across the cloth. And also we wanted to have an idea of their dimensions. And then, after the material’s being used, we wanted to see how the microcapsules react, they are supposed to explode and release the perfume.
And in fact, what we’ve seen here is that they are indeed microcapsules that have exploded and thus released their perfume.
- Spread across — razbacane.
- Dimension — veličina.
- To explode — eksplodirati.
- To release — da oslobodi, puštanje na slobodu.
At the “ Institut Francias du Textile et de l’habillement ” outside Lyons intelligent textiles are tested for resistance against heat, flames, tearing, liquids. Engineers work on several Europe-wide projects and also invent their own textiles for the future. Once the concept has been established, the cloth is modeled to a chosen design; and added to a virtual collection of tomorrow’s fashion. The dreams to become a reality, you need a plasma machine like this. Here, in a vacuum, textiles are put in contact with different gases: oxygen, nitrogen, fluoride, or ammonia. In this way researcher Jack Makeone changes the textile properties. Fluorides, for example, make normally absorbent cotton impermeable, while nitrogen makes normally resistant materials absorbent. Nitrogen will separate off and try to impregnate itself in the textiles, so using nitrogen gas you can make a kind of water plasma which will attach itself to the surface. And when you put water next to this, there is a very strong affinity and that makes the material that absorbs very easily, which is good for cleaning materials or for absorbing sweat, or for sticky materials or for printable materials. On the other hand, fluoride gas makes cotton water-resistant, so when it rains, it’s impermeable, but still comfortable.
- Resistance against heat, flames, tearing, liquids — stabilnost u odnosu na toplinu, vatru, nositi tečnost.
- Oxygen — kiseonik.
- Nitrogen — Azot.
- Fluoride — fluoride.
- Ammonia — amonijak.
- To separate off — razdvojiti.
- To impregnate — da natopi, popuniti.
- Affinity — sličnost.
In these workshops a European programme to make threads of the future is being researched. Christophe Angelloz is developing polypropylene thread that resists high temperatures. The polypropylene is mixed with chemical microparticles whose composition is a commercial secret. The mixture is pummelled, melted, stretched and woven into yarn.
It’s all polypropylene, but by changing the manufacturing conditions like the extrusion temperature, the weaving speed, the stretching tension you can optimize the thread production.
Threads with like others made at the centre will now undergo testing to see if they might be useful in the creation of the new intelligent textiles of the future.
- Workshop — shop.
- Polypropylene thread — polipropilen filament.
- To pummel — obrada, probijanje.
- To melt — da se topi.
- To stretch — povlačenjem.
- Extrusion temperature — oblikovanje temperatura sintetičkih vlakana.