In Gramatika By Ljiljan

Sherlock Holmes i modalni : modals of deduction

Za početak pokušaj da bolje razumiju ono što je zapravo deduction ili odbitak. U dictionary nam daje sljedeću definiciju riječi: the process of using the knowledge or information you have in order to understand something or form an opinion Drugim riječima, to je — zaključak do kojeg dolazimo primjenom Opšteg zakona na konkretan slučaj. Želite živopisan primjer? Molim vas:


Ukazujući general detalje kao što su položaj čaše, olovke, noževi, Sherlock je došao do zaključka — žrtva je levoruk.

Na engleskom, imamo cijelu grupu modalnih glagola koji nam pomažu da izraze kako vjerojatno mislimo ovo ili ono pretpostavka. Polazeći od veoma teško da će vrlo vjerojatno lanac će izgledati ovako:

can’t might could may must

Ovi glagoli mogu se koristiti za sadašnjost, prošlost i budućnost. Nakon svih ovih glagola koristi infinitiv bez čestica to No, krenimo redom.

Za akcije u . Present actions . Present actions

  1. Ako smo 100% sigurni da je ovaj ili onaj pretpostavka nije istina, mi koristimo can’t

    He can’t be right-handed. He writes with his left hand, I saw it. – to vidjela. He can’t be right-handed. He writes with his left hand, I saw it. – He can’t be right-handed. He writes with his left hand, I saw it. – To ne može biti u pravu rukom. On piše lijevom rukom, to sam vidio.

    Važna napomena: afirmativnih oblik glagola can mogu se koristiti samo za opšte pretpostavke, kao što su:

    It can be very cold here in winter. – It can be very cold here in winter. – To može biti vrlo hladno zimi. . e. to dogodi s vremena na vrijeme)

  2. Might may could koristiti ako imate određene dokaze u korist prijedlog, ali sumnjam.

    He might get a lot of important phone calls during the day. I saw an open notepad by the phone. – pozivi u toku dana. He might get a lot of important phone calls during the day. I saw an open notepad by the phone. – He might get a lot of important phone calls during the day. I saw an open notepad by the phone. – Možda je često nazvati o važnim pitanjima. Vidio sam otvoren svesku pored telefona. (ali to ne znači ništa, možda je telefonirao je neko bio u večernjim satima)

    He could be a busy man. I can see a lot of notes in his notepad. – njegovom notepad. He could be a busy man. I can see a lot of notes in his notepad. – He could be a busy man. I can see a lot of notes in his notepad. – Možda je zauzet čovjek. Vidio sam mnogo zapisa u svoju bilježnicu. (ali je isto tako uvijek kod kuće, možda sam u krivu, tako da samo nagađam, ali ne reći 100%)

    He may love coffee. I saw a half-finished cup on the table. – stolu. He may love coffee. I saw a half-finished cup on the table. – He may love coffee. I saw a half-finished cup on the table. – Možda voli kafu. Vidio sam pola puna šoljicu piće. (ali nije mogao kuhati za gosta)

  3. Ako ste apsolutno sigurni u nešto, slobodno jesti must

    He must have a dog. I saw dog food. – He must have a dog. I saw dog food. – On bi trebao imati psa. Vidio sam hranu.

  4. Ako napravite prijedlog o nečemu što se događa u ovom trenutku, nakon što je modalni glagol je a mora jesti be + Verb + ing

    They must be having a party, the music is very loud. – muzika je vrlo glasan. They must be having a party, the music is very loud. – They must be having a party, the music is very loud. – Mora da im je sada stranka, svira glazbu vrlo glasno.

    He can’t be working today, it is Christmas! – je Božić! He can’t be working today, it is Christmas! – He can’t be working today, it is Christmas! – To ne može biti da je radio danas. Božić se!

    They may be skiing right now. They went to the mountain yesterday. – They may be skiing right now. They went to the mountain yesterday. – Oni su vjerojatno ići na skijanje danas.

Za radnje u . Past actions . Past actions

  1. Ipak, većina nagađanja Sherlocka o događajima koji su se već dogodile. Kako na temelju pretpostavke da se pokaže da govorimo o zadnji put? Kada vam je potreban da koristite modalni glagol have + Past participle U nastavku su primjeri Past Modals of Deduction

    He can’t have committed the suicide. He was left-handed, the wound is on the right side of his head. – je na desnoj strani glave. He can’t have committed the suicide. He was left-handed, the wound is on the right side of his head. – He can’t have committed the suicide. He was left-handed, the wound is on the right side of his head. – On nije mogao da izvrši samoubistvo. Rana na desnoj strani, a on je ostao rukom.

    He may have made himself a sandwich. There is some bread and butter left on the table. – stolu. He may have made himself a sandwich. There is some bread and butter left on the table. – He may have made himself a sandwich. There is some bread and butter left on the table. – Možda je napravio sebi sendvič. Na stolu su bili kruh i maslac.

    He must have been in the middle of a phone conversation, when someone came because he didn’t hang up the receiver. – telefonskog razgovora, kad netko došao jer nije poklopite slušalicu. He must have been in the middle of a phone conversation, when someone came because he didn’t hang up the receiver. – He must have been in the middle of a phone conversation, when someone came because he didn’t hang up the receiver. – Pretpostavljam da je samo govorio na telefon kad je neko došao, jer on nije spustio slušalicu.

  2. Ova pretpostavka može izgledati ovako:

    He must have been talking on the phone, when someone came. – kada je netko došao. He must have been talking on the phone, when someone came. – He must have been talking on the phone, when someone came. – Mora da je razgovarao na telefon kad je neko došao.

    Ako želimo naglasiti da predložena akcija trajala u prošlosti neko vrijeme nakon što je modalni glagol se koristi have + been + Verb + ing

    Važna napomena: Ako smo upravo opisali situaciju bez ikakvih pretpostavki u tom kontekstu treba konzumirati Past Continuous

    He was talking on the phone when someone came. – došao. He was talking on the phone when someone came. – He was talking on the phone when someone came. – On je bio na telefonu kada je neko došao.

Za akcije u . Future actions . Future actions

Modalni glagoli may might could se koristi za izražavanje nesigurnosti u vezi budućnosti. U ovom slučaju, nakon što su koristili infinitiv bez čestica to ili be + Verb + ing

I might (may) be working on Saturday. – subotu. I might (may) be working on Saturday. – I might (may) be working on Saturday. – Možda ću raditi u subotu.

We could meet for lunch tomorrow. – We could meet for lunch tomorrow. – Mogli bi imati zajednički ručak sutra.

Drugi načini da izraze possibility i certainty

Također modals of deduction na engleskom jeziku, postoje i drugi načini da se izrazi possibility i certainty (vjerojatnost i sigurnost).

1. Što točno će se dogoditi

  • To be bound to do something — da se nešto desi, naravno, potrebno.

    Our team is much more prepared. We are bound to win. – Our team is much more prepared. We are bound to win. – Naš tim je više nego spreman. Mi ćemo pobijediti.

  • Something will definitely happen — nešto je dužan da se dogodi.

    Peter will definitely get this job – Peter sigurno obaviti posao.

  • To be sure to do something — definitivno nešto učiniti.

    Margaret is sure to fail the test. She hasn’t done anything. – Margaret is sure to fail the test. She hasn’t done anything. – Margaret točne test neuspjeh. Ona nije ništa.

2. Nešto možda / vjerojatno dogoditi

  • To be likely to do something — postoji šansa da će se nešto dogoditi.

    Young people from rural areas are likely to move to cities. – presele u gradove. Young people from rural areas are likely to move to cities. – Young people from rural areas are likely to move to cities. – Moguće je da mladi ljudi iz ruralnih područja sele u grad.

  • To be probable that — vjerojatno.

    It is probable that it will snow tomorrow. – It is probable that it will snow tomorrow. – Vjerojatno sutra će biti snijega.

  • To be possible that — možda to.

    It is possible that they just lost your package. – ​​paket. It is possible that they just lost your package. – It is possible that they just lost your package. – Možda su upravo izgubio svoj ​​paketić.

3. Ono što je vjerojatno da se desi

  • To be unlikely — nešto teško.

    Their party is unlikely to win the elections. – Their party is unlikely to win the elections. – To je malo vjerovatno da je njihova stranka pobedi na izborima.

  • To be impossible that / to do smth — to je nemoguće da će se nešto dogoditi.

    It is impossible to install this program on your computer. – računalo. It is impossible to install this program on your computer. – It is impossible to install this program on your computer. – Ne možete instalirati program na vašem računalu.

  • Probably/definitely won’t — vjerojatno / sigurno ne.

    He definitely won’t forget about your invitation. – He definitely won’t forget about your invitation. – On zaboravi na vaš poziv.

Možda postoji neka varijacija riječi most definitely (točno), highly unlikely / likely (vrlo vjerojatno), quite probable (sasvim moguće), etc

I sada nudimo vam da rade zajedno sa Sherlock. Pogledajte video i odaberite ispravan odgovor na prijedloge. U transkriptu na video prilogu. Ali ne gledajte izravno u zapisnik. Pokušajte slušanje razumjeti ono što je na kocki.

Transcript

 

Gramatika

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