In Gramatika By Oksana

Konjuktiv forme u kompleksu kazne u šeme

Mi smo pokušali uvesti korištenje konjuktiva u jednostavnom rečenicom u obliku tabele. Sada pokušajte napraviti sličan obrazac patterns do složenih rečenica.


Prvo, saznati šta su različiti oblici konjuktiv na engleskom jeziku. Predlažemo da izdvoje četiri: Subjunctive I Mood Subjunctive Mood II Suppositional Mood Conditional Mood (Treba napomenuti da nisu svi lingvisti pridržavaju ovoj klasifikaciji, u različitim udžbenicima na gramatiku, to može biti drugačije).

Zamislite konjuktiva oblik stola.

Obrasci konjunktiv The Forms of the Subjunctive Mood

1. Subjunctive I Mood = to Infinitive
Success attend you!
Da vas pratiti sreća!
2. Subjunctive Mood II
Present = Past Indefinite
I wish he were present.
To je šteta što on nije bio prisutan.
It’s high time you did your flat.
Ti da je vrijeme da očistite stan.
Past = Past Perfect
I wish she had gone to England last year.
To je šteta što nije otišla u Englesku prošle godine.
3. Suppositional Mood
Present = should + Indefinite Infinitive
I insist that you should work hard.
Pozivam vas da naporno rade.
Past = should + Perfect Infinitive
(rijetko koristi!)
It’s important that you should have been present at the meeting.
Važno je da, ako je prisustvovao sastanku.
4. Conditional Mood
Present = would / should + Indefinite Infinitive
If it were warm, we would go to the park.
Ako je bilo toplo, mi bi otišli u park. (odnosi se na datum)
Past = would / should + Perfect Infinitive
If I had worked harder last year, I would have got an excellent mark at the exam.
Ako sam radio teže u godini, ja bih dobio savršen rezultat na ispitu.

Sada razmotriti korištenje tih obrazaca u složenoj rečenici.

Upotreba Subjunctive Mood II Conditional Mood

I. Uvjetna kazne Subjunctive II + Conditional

Zapamtite ova formula, nikada nećete biti zbunjeni na trenutak gdje morate koristiti:

did should / would do
If smb. smth. smb. smth.
had done should / would have done
  1. If he came 1 earlier, we should go 2 to the cinema — Da je došao ranije, mi bi otišli u bioskop. (danas ili sutra)

    1Subjunctive II Present
    2Conditional Present

  2. If he had come 1 earlier, we should have gone 2 to the cinema. — to the cinema. — Da je došao ranije, mi bi otišli u bioskop. (odnosi se na prošlost, on nije došao, u filmu i nisu išli)

    1Subjunctive II Past
    2Conditional Past

Imajte na umu da ponekad kad izražavanje nerealnih uvjeta unreal condition mogu se koristiti mješoviti oblici:

  1. Subjunctive II Present + Conditional Past

    If she weren’t absent minded, she wouldn’t have lost the book — ne bi izgubila knjigu — da nije očišćen, to ne bi izgubila knjigu. (to je, u principu, uvijek razbacane, tako da je Present)

  2. Subjunctive II Past + Conditional Present

    If he hadn’t missed the seminar, he would be answering well now — on bi se sad dobro odgovorili — da nije preskočio radionicu, sada bi bio dobar odgovor.

II. Izrazi wish

wish (-es)
wished
will wish
smb. did
I / smb. smth.
had done

I wish she were here. — here. — To je šteta što ona nije tu.

I wish / wished she had been there. — there. — Šteta je da ona nije bila tamo.

Ako želimo napraviti prijedlog više ekspresivni more emphatic možete koristiti sljedeće formule:

wish (-es)
wished
will wish
smb. would do
I / smb. smth.
would have done

I wish you would have studied better last year. — better last year. — Kakva šteta što niste proučava te godine je bolji.

III. U paranazalnih predikata predicative clauses i usporedbu comparative clauses sa as if as though

said
sounded
looks (-ed)
seems (-ed)
speaks (spoke)
feels (felt)
is (was)
as if
as though
(kao da)
did
Smb. smb. smth.
had done

He feels as if he were falling ill. — falling ill. — On osjeća kao da će dobiti bolestan.

She speaks English as though she had lived in England all her life. — in England all her life. — Govori engleski jezik kao da je sav svoj ​​život u Engleskoj.

IV. Subjektivni zavisne rečenice in subject clauses

a). Sa as if as though

is not
was not
won’t
(u stvari)
as if
as though
did
It smb. smth.
had done

It is not as if you knew him. — him. — Na kraju krajeva, vi ga niste poznavali.

b). Uz izraze it’s time it’s about time it’s high time

time (to je vrijeme)
about time (skoro vrijeme)
high time (odavno)
smb. did
It is smth.

Imajte na umu da su ovi prijedlozi koristiti samo Subjunctive II Present

It’s high time you knew Grammar well. — Grammar well. — Ti si dobro prošlo vreme da zna gramatiku.

V. U daljem zavisne rečenice in object clauses

had
would
rather did
Smb. smb. smth.
had done

I would rather you went away now. — away now. — Radije bih da su sada nestali.

She would rather you had stayed — Ona bi radije da ste onda otišli. — To pripada prošlosti.

Koristite Suppositional Mood Subjunctive I Mood

I. Subjektivni zavisne rečenice in subject clauses

is
was
will be
necessary
important
desirable
requested
demanded
advisable
arranged
ordered
commanded
smb. should do
It that smth.
smb. do

It is necessary that you should come a couple of days before the others. — a couple of days before the others. — Bitno je da ste došli dva dana ranije od svih ostalih.

is
was
natural
understandable
characteristic
surprising
strange
curious
odd
doubtful
impossible
unpleasant
a pity
a shame
smb. should do
It that smth.
smb. should have done

It is odd (strange) that she should have objected against the proposal. — against the proposal. — Čudno je da je ona usprotivila ovom prijedlogu.

Imajte na umu da u deklarativno kazne declarative sentences sa possible probable likely koristeći modalni glagoli may might can could

It is possible the key may be lost. — lost. — Moguće je da je ključ je izgubljen.

No, pitanje interrogative i negativna negative nudi se koristi should + infinitive

It is not possible that he should have guessed it. — it. — Nemoguće je da je on pretpostavio.

Is it possible that he should refuse to come? — to come? — Da li je moguće da je on odbio da dođe?

II. U daljem zavisne rečenice in object clauses

to suggest
to demand
to insist
to order
to arrange
to request
to advise…
smb. should do
that smth.
smb. do

He suggested that we should start the meeting at once. — the meeting at once. — On je predložio da nakon sastanka.

to think
to believe
to consider
to find
it necessary
important
desirable
advisable…
smb. should do
that smth.
smb. do

I believe it desirable that you should read the book. — the book. — Mislim da je poželjno da ste pročitali knjigu.

to think
to believe
to consider
to find…
it natural
strange
odd
pleasant
unpleasant
possible
impossible
curious…
smb. should do
that smth.
smb. should have done

I believe it natural that he should like his job. — his job. — Smatram da je prirodno da on voli svoj ​​posao.

They find it curious that he should have refused from the proposal. — from the proposal. — Oni misle da je čudno da je on odbio ponudu.

to be astonished
to be sorry
to be pleased…
smb. should do
that smth.
smb. should have done

I’m astonished that she should have said this. — this. — Bio sam vrlo iznenađen da je to rekao.

to fear
to worry
to be afraid
to be uneasy…
smb. should do
lest smb. should have done smth.
smb. do

I’m afraid lest it should be too late. — too late. — Bojim se da je prekasno.

Ako se uvodi klauzulu unije that onda:

to fear
to worry
to be afraid
to be uneasy…
smb. may, might, can, could do
that smth.
smb. may, might, can, could have done

I’m afraid that he may be ill. — ill. — Bojim se da je bolestan.
I was afraid that he might be ill. — ill. — Bojao sam se da je on bio bolestan.

I’m afraid that he may have missed the train. — the train. — Bojim se da je propustio voz.
I was afraid that he might have missed the train. — the train. — Bojao sam se da je zakasnio na voz.

III. U paranazalnih predikata predicative clauses

order
suggestion
demand
request
recommendation
wish
rule
arrangement…
is
was
will be
that smb. should do
smth.
smb. do

The order was that we should leave the room. — the room. — Naredba je činjenica da smo izašli iz sobe.

anxiety
fear
worry
is
was
will be
lest smb. should do
smth.
smb. should have done

Her constant fear is lest there should be something wrong with the child’s health. — something wrong with the child’s health. — Njegova stalnom strahu je da se ništa nije dogodilo za zdravlje svog djeteta.

Ako se uvodi klauzulu unije that onda:

anxiety
fear
worry
is
was
will be
that smb. may, might do
smth.
smb. may, might have done

Her only fear is that there may be something wrong with her the child’s health. — something wrong with her the child’s health. — Jedina stvar koju strahuje da je zdravlje njenog djeteta može imati nešto dogodilo.

IV. U paranazalnih atributivnim in attributive clauses

order
suggestion
demand
request
recommendation
wish
rule
arrangement…
that smb. should do
smth.
smb. do

He gave an order that nobody should leave the room. — the room. — On je naredio da niko napustio sobu.

fear
worry
lest smb. should do
smth.
smb. should have done

She had a constant fear lest something should happen to her child. — to her child. — Ona je bila uvijek bojao da se ništa nije dogodilo da joj dijete.

Ako se uvodi klauzulu unije that onda:

fear
worry
that smb. may, might do
smth.
smb. may, might have done

She had a constant fear that something might happen to her child. — to her child. — Ona je bila uvijek bojao da će se nešto može desiti da joj dijete.

V. Svrha adventivnih in clauses of purpose

to do smth. lest
(Ne)
smb. should do
smth.
smb. do

Do it at once, lest she should change her mind. — her mind. — Do sada, kako bi mogla predomisliti.

Ako se uvodi klauzulu so that that in order that onda:

to do smth. so that
that
in order that
smb. may, might, can, could do
may, might, can, could not do
smth.

I shall make you some sandwiches so that you can (may) not be hungry. — be hungry. — Ja ću ti napraviti sendvič, tako da nećete osjećati gladni.

He gave me some money that I could buy two magazines. — two magazines. — On mi je dao novac da bih mogao da kupim dva časopisa.

I sad ja predlažem mali test za provjeru metode opisane iznad upotreba konjuktiva raspoloženje:

 

Gramatika

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