In Nauke By Oksana

Engleski komunikativna klišei

Vjeruje se da razmišlja markice i klišeje koristiti šablonski fraze — to je opsceno. Ali, da li je to mišljenje mi studiraju strani jezik (učenici, studenti, itd)? Koji je bolji u smislu ovladavanja kulture govora, kada studiranje na stranom jeziku: kada učenik ili student ima prekrasan, ali naučio napamet govor obrasce drugih, ili kada on koristi «nespretan», ali njegov fraze i misli? Vjerujem da je govor standardima i klišeje dati naš govor pismenost, čine ga prekrasan, razumljivo drugima. Učenje stranog jezika je teško, čak i na najviši stupanj, brzo i pravilno formulirati svoje misli. A posebno akutan problem je osjetio tijekom spontanog govora (ovo se odnosi čak i nastavnici). Da razviju vještine za brzo organizirati svoje misli u prijedlogu, odnosno to speak fluently koji će se koristiti u govoru komunikaciji klišea. Prvo, zahvaljujući spreman komunikativne fraze to lijepo uokviren prijedloge logički povezane, tako da je ugodan za slušati. Drugo, donoseći znanje govora fraza spremni da automatizma, govoreći, koristeći jedan ili drugi kliše, razmišljanja naredne fraze. Na taj način, putem komunikacijske klišea vrlo lako riješi tzv lingvistički mucanja.


Predlažem da klasificirati komunikativna klišea (prema motivima, situacije i faze izjava) prema 9 grupa:

  1. Počevši izjave
  2. Nastavak izjave
  3. Izraz
  4. Suprotan stav
  5. Izražavanje pristanka
  6. Neslaganje sumnje
  7. Pojašnjenje situacije, fokus
  8. Ovi primjeri, činjenice
  9. Kraj izvoda
Kliše Mogući prijevod
1. Pokrenite izjave (Opening)
I’d like to point out right at the beginning that… Na početku bih napomenuti (napomena) koji …
How by way of introduction I would go as far as to say that… Putem uvod, ja bih rekao (rekao bih) da …
Just at the beginning I would go as far as to say that… U početku, rekao bih (bih) koji …
It should be pointed out right as the beginning that… Na početku treba napomenuti da je …
We very clearly remember that… Mi smo jako dobro da se …
Today we’ll be taking a closer look at… Danas ćemo malo bolje pogledati …
Let’s talk briefly about… Hajde da razgovaramo o … ukratko
2. Nastavak izjave (Continuing)
But right now our attention turns to… Sada obratite pažnju na …
Now, let’s look at the situation in… A sada pogledajmo ove situacije (npr. S druge strane)
And now let’s turn to… Sada ćemo preći na …
I think what we can hope to do now is… Mislim da sada možemo nadati da uradi … (nešto što se možemo nadati za sada — to je …)
What is likely to happen is… Najvjerovatnije biti dalje …
Let’s move to another question. Idemo na sledeće pitanje.
Now it is going to be my pleasure to explain to you… Zadovoljan sam (s radošću) objasniti da ti …
3. izražavanje mišljenja (Opinion phrases)
I don’t profess to be an expert on the subject of… Ja se ne pretvaram da bude stručnjak u ovom broju … (u pitanja o …)
No one, I think, is challenging the view that… Mislim da niko ne sumnja da je …
I am tempted to think that… Sklon sam da mislim da …
I don’t honestly think that… Iskreno, ne mislim da je …
And now I’d prefer to talk about… rather than… I sada bih da razgovaramo o … a ne …
It strikes me that… To mi je da zadivljuje …
I know from personal experience… Znam iz vlastitog iskustva da je …
I hold the view that… Ja sam mišljenja da …
Well, my personal feeling is… Moje lično mišljenje …
It’s my firm believe that… Ja čvrsto vjerujem da …
As far as I am concerned… Što se mene tiče, onda …
It’s been my observation that… Prema mojim zapažanjima …
I am not so pessimistic as to suggest… Nisam toliko pesimistična kao da predloži …
I’ve got an impression that… Imam utisak da …
4. suprotan stav (Contrasting point of view)
On the other hand… S druge strane …
There is another side to this. Postoji i druga strana.
There are 2 ways of looking at this… U tu se može posmatrati sa dvije strane.
There are different views of… Postoje različita mišljenja o …
It would be a mistake to think that… Bilo bi pogrešno (pogrešno) misle da …
It is not a final word on the matter. Ovo nije poslednja reč u ovom pitanju.
It doesn’t necessarily mean that… To ne znači da …
Well, there’s been a debate about this. Ova rasprava.
I take a different view at… Ja imam drugačije mišljenje o …
Opponents argue that… Protivnici tvrde da …
Many people oppose the viewpoint that… Mnogi ljudi ne podržavaju stav da …
There’s been mixed reaction to… Bilo je mješoviti reakcija na …
5. Izraz saglasnosti (Agreement)
Yes, you’re quite right to say that… Potpuno si u pravu kad si rekao …
You are certainly correct to say that… Ti si apsolutno u pravu kada su rekli …
You’ve been very right to say that… Apsolutno si u pravu da kažem da …
No questions about it. Nema govora o tome.
Well, exactly. That’s precisely what I was going to say. Tako je! To je upravo ono što sam htio reći.
I have almost no doubt that… Imam gotovo da nema sumnje da je …
I am 100% certain that… Ja sam 100% siguran da …
I have little doubt that… Ne sumnjam da je …
6. izraz neslaganja, sumnje (Disagreement, uncertainty)
I can disagree. Nisam mogao složiti više.
I express strong objection to the idea that… Ja ne slažem sa stavom da …
I don’t think it’s fair to say that… Ja ne mislim da je pošteno reći …
That’s where you are wrong about it. To je u ovom si u pravu.
This does not seem to be so. Čini se da to nije.
There is continuing disagreement over… Stalno postoji neslaganje oko …
There has been much disagreement over… Postoji puno razlike u odnosu na …
It is rather questionable if… Umjesto toga sumnjivi, osim ako …
It looks very unlikely that… To je vjerojatno da …
It’s an impossible question to answer. Ovo pitanje je nemoguće odgovoriti.
I have considerable doubt as far as N. is concerned. Ja stvarno sumnjam N.
I doubt it very much, because… Sumnjam jako puno, jer …
I am rather vague about it. Nisam baš siguran.
7. Pojašnjenje situacije, fokus (Clearing up, emphasizing)
Nobody would want to deny the fact that… Niko ne može negirati činjenicu da je …
And the thing that comes particularly strongly is… A posebno privukla pažnju (izdvojena) nešto što se zove …
One of the things that must be of concern (importance) to us is… Prvo, moramo obratiti pažnju na … (za nas je vrlo važan, prvi …)
I’d like to remind you that… Ja bih da vas to podsjetiti …
We have to bear in mind that… Imajte na umu da …
One has to bear in mind… Svako treba imati na umu da je …
What we have to look forward to is… Ono što se možemo nadati (ono što možemo očekivati), tako da je …
It’s from this angle that one must seriously consider this problem. To je od ove strane potrebe da se ozbiljno pozabave ovim pitanjem.
It must be admitted that… Treba napomenuti da je …
It immediately brings to mind… Ovaj je odmah podsjeća (primamljivo misliti) o …
But one mustn’t lose sight of the fact that… Ne smijemo izgubiti iz vida činjenicu da je …
The other thing that we should keep in mind is… Naredni stvar (sljedeći put), koji (th) ne smije se zaboraviti …
To go right to the heart of the problem I’d like to say that… Osvrćući se na prirodu problema, ja bih da kažem da …
Yes, the strange thing about it is that… Da, čudno je da u ovom …
What I was greatly struck by is… Ono što me je udario, to je …
I must make my reservation. Moram napraviti rezervaciju.
Reservation should be made. Morate napraviti rezervaciju.
8. navedeni primjeri, činjenice (Giving examples, facts)
Let me give you a brief example… Dozvolite mi da vam dati brz primjer …
Let me give you an example of what I mean… Dozvolite mi da vam dam jedan primjer onoga što mislim …
Let me illustrate the point with the example… Dozvolite mi pokazati ovom trenutku kao primjer …
What we have seen now is a kind of a perfect example of… Ono što smo vidjeli — to je savršen primjer za to …
Let me see if I can illustrate that for you. Da vidim da li mogu da objasnim.
There is a great deal of discussion about… Što se tiče tekuće debate ….
It’s a problem that will only increase in time. To je problem koji će se povećati samo s vremenom (gore).
Nobody doubts that… Niko ne sumnja da je …
This means just what it says. To znači upravo ono što ti misliš.
What’s more difficult to explain is… Ono što je još teže objasniti, to je …
There’s a widely held view that… Tu je rašireno uvjerenje da …
There’s been a lot of scientific evidence that… Ima dosta znanstvenih dokaza da …
There’s enough evidence that… Postoji mnogo dokaza da su …
Izjava 9. Završetak (Concluding)
To draw to a close I’d like to say that… U zaključku bih da kažem da …
To have the final say in the matter… Na kraju ću reći da je …
To crown it all I’d like to say that… Povrh svega želim da kažem da …
Let’s have a final look at… Razmotrimo zadnji put …
It only remains for me to say… Mogu samo reći da …
I would like to sum up the chief points of what has just been said. Ja bih da sumirati glavne točke onoga što je rekao.
All things considered, the obvious conclusion to be drawn is that… Uzimajući sve u obzir, možemo napraviti očigledan zaključak da …
All in all, it is evident… Na kraju krajeva, to je očito da …
To sum it up I’d like to say… Sumirajući, želim reći …
To draw to the conclusion I’d like to say that… U zaključku bih da kažem da …
Summarizing, we may say that… Sumirajući, možemo reći da je …
That’s where I’d like to end. U isto vrijeme želim da završim.

(Primjer rečenice učinio GGPIIYA nastavnik Sergey Martinson)

Treba napomenuti da su ovi klišea su autentični, to jest, oni su odabrani iz primarnih izvora (BBC programa i članke u časopisu The Economist Stoga, prevođenje ovih rečenica nije njihov ruski ekvivalent, i pokušaj da se maksimalno precizno prenijeti njihovo značenje.

Nadam se da će ovo biti izbor komunikativnog klišea neophodan za engleski jezik uče. Ove fraze će pomoći da vaš govor izražajan i prirodan.

Predlažem da se uporedi dva teksta. Tekst 1 osvjetljava subjekt, ali ne sadrži linking elements (fraze, akordi), Tekst 2 zasićene komunikativna fraze, što ga čini «živ». Govor klišea od sebe, po pravilu, ne nose semantičke sadržaj, ali izgraditi okviru bilo kakve izjave pripisuju neke misli zajedno. Neko bi mogao reći da je korištenje klilje fraze — da i ne govorimo. Ali, da bi pričao o nečemu na engleskom jeziku — nije za šalu! Slažem se! 🙂

Tekst 1

Mass Media

We can’t imagine our life without mass media: newspapers, magazines, books, radio, television, films, records, tapes, etc. The impact of all mass media is very strong.

News is not what happens – it is what you see or read in mass media. In other words, mass media shapes public opinion. Sometimes it’s good, but sometimes it’s terribly bad.

TV is one of the most popular mass media in the contemporary world. There are many arguments for & against TV. Television has both advantages & disadvantages, positive & negative influence.

TV keeps us informed about current events in different parts of the world. The most distant countries and the strangest customs are brought right into our sitting room. There are many educational programmes that give us ideas about right & wrong, good & bad. Television helps to increase the popularity of sports. The popularity of professional football has soared largely because of television. Television plays its greatest role in presidential races. Everybody knows that today many candidates reach more voters through a single TV appearance than through all the in-person campaigning they do. Different political talk-show programmes are extremely popular nowadays & they capture people’s attention.

But negative effect of television is also great indeed. It occupies a good deal of our spare time. Our parents sit for hours before the box and don’t want to go to the theatres or museums, speak to their friends, or play with their children. And children are unwilling to do their home assignment, read books or go outside. They prefer to watch their favourite programmes or films on “ telly ” . TV begins to dominate our lives. We gradually become TV addicts. One more harmful effect results when people fail to achieve the success they see on TV and become dissatisfied or bitter.

Good or bad television brings the world into our home and brings us closer to other people. Besides, it is good company for people who live alone. TV changes our language, stimulates our emotions, informs our intellect, extends our knowledge, influences our ideas and provides vital food for our imagination. We must realize that TV in itself is neither good nor bad. It’s up to us to decide which advantages we can make of it.

Tekst 2

Mass Media

I’d like to point out right at the beginning that we can’t imagine our life without mass media: newspapers, magazines, books, radio, television, films, records, tapes, etc. No one, I think, is challenging the view that the impact of all mass media is very strong.

Some people claim that “ news is not what happens – it is what you see or read in mass media ” . In other words, mass media shapes public opinion. Sometimes it’s good, but sometimes it’s terribly bad. “ news is not what happens – it is what you see or read in mass media ” . In other words, mass media shapes public opinion. Sometimes it’s good, but sometimes it’s terribly bad. mnjenja. “ news is not what happens – it is what you see or read in mass media ” . In other words, mass media shapes public opinion. Sometimes it’s good, but sometimes it’s terribly bad. užasno loše. “ news is not what happens – it is what you see or read in mass media ” . In other words, mass media shapes public opinion. Sometimes it’s good, but sometimes it’s terribly bad.

It goes without saying and nobody would deny the fact that TV is one of the most popular mass media in the contemporary world. I don’t profess to be an expert on the subject of the impact of television on people, but it can be stated with certainty that there are many arguments for & against TV. It is obvious that television has both advantages & disadvantages, positive & negative influence.

And now I’d prefer to talk about positive effects of TV rather than negative ones. The first thing that must be of great importance to us is that TV keeps people informed about current events in different parts of the world. The most distant countries and the strangest customs are brought right into our sitting room. There are many educational programmes that give us ideas about right & wrong, good & bad. is that TV keeps people informed about current events in different parts of the world. The most distant countries and the strangest customs are brought right into our sitting room. There are many educational programmes that give us ideas about right & wrong, good & bad. su dovedeni u pravu u našu dnevnu sobu. is that TV keeps people informed about current events in different parts of the world. The most distant countries and the strangest customs are brought right into our sitting room. There are many educational programmes that give us ideas about right & wrong, good & bad. is that TV keeps people informed about current events in different parts of the world. The most distant countries and the strangest customs are brought right into our sitting room. There are many educational programmes that give us ideas about right & wrong, good & bad. We also mustn’t lose sight of the fact that television helps to increase the popularity of sports. For example , the popularity of professional football has soared largely because of television. Moreover , television plays its greatest role in presidential races. Everybody knows that today many candidates reach more voters through a single TV appearance than through all the in-person campaigning they do. Different political talk-show programmes are extremely popular nowadays & they capture people’s attention. , television plays its greatest role in presidential races. Everybody knows that today many candidates reach more voters through a single TV appearance than through all the in-person campaigning they do. Different political talk-show programmes are extremely popular nowadays & they capture people’s attention. birača kroz jedan TV nastup nego kroz sve u-lice kampanje rade. , television plays its greatest role in presidential races. Everybody knows that today many candidates reach more voters through a single TV appearance than through all the in-person campaigning they do. Different political talk-show programmes are extremely popular nowadays & they capture people’s attention. popularne danas i oni uhvate pažnju ljudi. , television plays its greatest role in presidential races. Everybody knows that today many candidates reach more voters through a single TV appearance than through all the in-person campaigning they do. Different political talk-show programmes are extremely popular nowadays & they capture people’s attention.

But there is another side of looking at television , because its negative effect is also great indeed. TV occupies a good deal of our spare time. , because its negative effect is also great indeed. TV occupies a good deal of our spare time. It strikes me that our parents sit for hours before the box and don’t want to go to the theatres or museums, speak to their friends, or play with their children. And children are unwilling to do their home assignment, read books or go outside. They prefer to watch their favourite programmes or films on “ telly ” . TV begins to dominate our lives. our parents sit for hours before the box and don’t want to go to the theatres or museums, speak to their friends, or play with their children. And children are unwilling to do their home assignment, read books or go outside. They prefer to watch their favourite programmes or films on “ telly ” . TV begins to dominate our lives. zadatak, čitati knjige ili ići van. our parents sit for hours before the box and don’t want to go to the theatres or museums, speak to their friends, or play with their children. And children are unwilling to do their home assignment, read books or go outside. They prefer to watch their favourite programmes or films on “ telly ” . TV begins to dominate our lives. filmove na «televiziji». our parents sit for hours before the box and don’t want to go to the theatres or museums, speak to their friends, or play with their children. And children are unwilling to do their home assignment, read books or go outside. They prefer to watch their favourite programmes or films on “ telly ” . TV begins to dominate our lives. our parents sit for hours before the box and don’t want to go to the theatres or museums, speak to their friends, or play with their children. And children are unwilling to do their home assignment, read books or go outside. They prefer to watch their favourite programmes or films on “ telly ” . TV begins to dominate our lives. What commonly happens is that we gradually become TV addicts. One more harmful effect results when people fail to achieve the success they see on TV and become dissatisfied or bitter. we gradually become TV addicts. One more harmful effect results when people fail to achieve the success they see on TV and become dissatisfied or bitter. bi postigli uspjeh vide na TV-u i postati nezadovoljni ili gorak. we gradually become TV addicts. One more harmful effect results when people fail to achieve the success they see on TV and become dissatisfied or bitter.

To crown it all I’d like to say that good or bad television brings the world into our home and brings us closer to other people. Besides, it is good company for people who live alone. that good or bad television brings the world into our home and brings us closer to other people. Besides, it is good company for people who live alone. To say more , TV changes our language, stimulates our emotions, informs our intellect, extends our knowledge, influences our ideas and provides vital food for our imagination. I firmly believe we must realize that TV in itself is neither good nor bad. It’s up to us to decide which advantages we can make of it. loš. we must realize that TV in itself is neither good nor bad. It’s up to us to decide which advantages we can make of it. prednosti možemo napraviti od toga. we must realize that TV in itself is neither good nor bad. It’s up to us to decide which advantages we can make of it.

 

Nauke

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