In Postupak By Viktorija

Dan zahvalnosti (Thanksgiving Day): Bloody History

Tradicionalno, Dan zahvalnosti otvara u Sjedinjenim Američkim Državama, uoči Božića sezone. Ovo je najprometniji dan u godini svi Amerikanci su zauzeti pripremama. Posebno mjesto je dato praznične trpeze, koji pokriva cijelu obitelj. Tradicionalno je služio punjena Turska Thanksgiving Turkey s džemom od brusnice cranberry sauce i na otvorenom pita od bundeve pumpkin pie Za vrijeme večere, neke porodice slomi Turska jadac break the turkey’s wishbone kada je pojeo Turska, njih dvojica uzeti dva kraja kosti i napraviti želju, razbijanje otvoren je i izgledati čiji komad kosti više. Želje, onaj u rukama napustila većina. I mnogo zadovoljstva gledanja Amerikanaca dostaviti tradicionalne parade na TV-u. Svake godine u New Yorku, parada the New York City Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade u organizaciji robne kuće Macy’s 1927. godine, koja se emitira uživo u cijeloj zemlji. Parada je uključena platformu na točkovima floats sa velikim napuhavanje igračke za njih. Ove igračke su tradicionalni simboli za Dan zahvalnosti, kao i figure poznatih televizijskih likova. Parada je također uključen pjesama i predstavljanje Broadway mjuzikla. Svake godine prolazi i tradicionalne Turska pomilovanje svečanosti presidential pardon koji na taj način izbjeći sudbinu da budu pojedeni na svečanoj večeri. Ove godine, predsjednik Barack Obama pomilovao dvije ćurke Svečano Cobbler and Gobbler


Ipak, glavna uloga u ovoj proslavi molitve pridržana Thanksgiving prayer To Amerikanci tradicionalno donose riječi zahvalnosti Bogu za milost i nemilost onih koji ih je blagoslovio ove godine.

Istorija Dan zahvalnosti Thanksgiving Day je nadaleko poznat. Ovaj festival ima vjerske korijene: slavili u jesen, to je, naravno, simbolizuje u davna vremena, zahvaljujući bogovima za žetve harvest Ali s vremenom, svoje vjerske značaj je izgubljen. Danas, Dan zahvalnosti je tradicionalno povezana s prvim doseljenicima settlers u 1620, odlazi na opasno putovanje na obale Novog sveta na brodu, koji je postao poznat brod «Mayflower» the “ Mayflower ” Kasnije su osnovali Plymouth Colony Plymouth Colony postao je jedan od prvih trinaest britanskih kolonija u Sjevernoj Americi. Ovi doseljenici su bili protestanti, puritanaca, koji su željeli da se odvoje od separate from je Anglikanska crkva Church of England U početku, oni se preselili u Nizozemskoj, ali ne doživljava nepodnošljiva finansijskim poteškoćama, uz podršku britanske Traders traders otišao istražiti Ameriku. Sudbina nije bio povoljan za njih, a oni spustili mnogo dalje sjeverno nego što se očekivalo. To se dogodilo u ono što je sada Massachusetts Massachussetts Prve zime u novoj domovini postala za mnoge od njih posljednje, a na proljeće preživjelih kolonija osnovana i počela da se pripreme za zimu. Na taj način, pomogli su Wampanoag indijanskom plemenu Wampanoag Tiskvantum ili Skvanto Tisquantum / Squanto koji je, što je engleski jezik postao posrednik između kolonista i lokalno stanovništvo. Skvanto naučio naseljenici oploditi zemlju ribe i diktata koji usjeva može biti uzgaja u ovim uvjetima, tako da dolazi jesen Englezi okupili bogatu žetvu. Ovaj događaj će poslužiti za jačanje prijateljstva između kolonista i lokalnih Indijanaca, koji su zajedno proslavili prvi Dan zahvalnosti.

Donosimo vam video koji prikazuje tradicionalni pogled o poreklu praznika.

The Story of the First Thanksgiving

Around four hundred years ago many people in England were unhappy because their King would not let them pray to God as they liked. The King said they must use the same prayers that he did and if they refused, they were prosecuted, imprisoned or even killed. These Englishman left their homes and went far off to a country called Holland. In Holland they were happy, but they were very poor and when the children began to grow they became less godlike and did not want to pray anymore. After much talking and thinking these English people decided to embark on a pilgrimage to the New World – America.

They set out on a small ship called the “ Mayflower ” to take them across the sea. There were about one hundred people on board the tiny ship. It was crowded, cold an uncomfortable. The sea was rough. They were two months sailing over the Atlantic Ocean. At last the “ Mayflower ” came inside of land. The month was November and it was cold. There was nothing to be seen but snow, rocks and hard bare ground. They were tired and cold from their long journey and hungry too, no one had enough food to eat. Many of them became sick and by springtime almost half of the people died.

In spring the sun shone brightly, the snow melted and leaves and flowers began to emerge. Some friendly Indians had visited the Pilgrims during the winter.

One of the kind Indians was named Squanto. He stayed with the Pilgrims and taught them how to plant their corn, peas, weat and barley. The summer came and the days were long and bright. The Pilgrim children were very happy in their new home Plymouth Rock. When it was autumn the Fathers gathered the barley, wheat and corn that they had planted, and found that it had grown so well that they would have quite enough for a long winter that was coming.

“ Let us thank God for it all! ” they said. Then they decided to have a grand Thanksgiving party and invite the friendly Indians. They prepared wild ducks and geese and great wild turkeys, there was deer meat, bread and cakes, they had fish and clams from the sea nearby. The friendly Indians all came with their chief. They were dressed in deer skins and some of them had the furry coat of a wild cat hanging on their arms. Their long black hair fell loose on their shoulders and was trimmed with feathers or fox tales. Before they ate, the Pilgrims and the Indians thanked God together for all his goodness. And so the story goes of the first Thanksgiving celebrated in Plymouth Colony nearly four hundred years ago. As you sit down with your friends and family this Thanksgiving remember this original tale and give thanks for all of God’s abundant blessings.

Useful words and phrases:

  • Embark on, v — start, pitch (za sve).
  • Pilgrimage, n — hodočašća, putovanje, dugo putovanje.
  • Set out, v — postavljen da ide.
  • On board the ship — na brodu.
  • The sea was rough — mora zabrinuti.
  • Emerge, v — pojavljuju; float; out.
  • Corn, n — kukuruz; kukuruza.
  • Wheat, n — pšenica.
  • Pea, n — grašak, grašak; graška.
  • Barley, n — ječam.
  • Deer, n — jelen pl deer
  • Clam, n — školjkaši.
  • Furry, adj — krzno; krznom postavljena.
  • Abundant, adj — bogat, bogat, u izobilju.

Međutim, postoji i druga gledišta — perspektive Indijanaca, za koje je prvi Dan zahvalnosti pretvorio u doba ropstva i krvavih ratova. U sljedećem video ćete naučiti o alternativnim tumačenje povijesti za Dan zahvalnosti, predstavio Susan Bates Susan Bates

Most of us associate the holiday with happy Pilgrims and Indians sitting down to a big feast. And that did happen — once.

The story began in 1614 when a band of English explorers sailed home to England with a ship full of Patuxet Indians bound for slavery. They left behind smallpox which virtually wiped out those who had escaped. By the time the Pilgrims arrived in Massachusetts Bay they found only one living Patuxet Indian, a man named Squanto who had survived slavery in England and knew their language. He taught them to grow corn and to fish, and negotiated a peace treaty between the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag Nation. At the end of their first year, the Pilgrims held a great feast honoring Squanto and the Wampanoags.

But as word spread in England about the paradise to be found in the new world, religious zealots called Puritans began arriving by the boat load. Finding no fences around the land, they considered it to be in the public domain. Joined by other British settlers, they seized land, capturing strong young Natives for slaves and killing the rest. But the Pequot Nation had not agreed to the peace treaty Squanto had negotiated and they fought back. The Pequot War was one of the bloodiest Indian wars ever fought.

In 1637 near present day Groton, Connecticut, over 700 men, women and children of the Pequot Tribe had gathered for their annual Green Corn Festival which is our Thanksgiving celebration. In the predawn hours the sleeping Indians were surrounded by the English and Dutch mercenaries who ordered them to come outside. Those who came out were shot or clubbed to death while terrified women and children who huddled inside the longhouse were burned alive. The next day the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony declared “ A Day Of Thanksgiving ” because 700 unarmed men, women and children had been murdered.

Cheered by their “ victory ” , the brave colonists and their Indian allies attacked village after village. Women and children over 14 were sold into slavery while the rest were murdered. Boats loaded with as many as 500 slaves regularly left the ports of New England. Bounties were paid for Indian scalps to encourage as many deaths as possible.

Following an especially successful raid against the Pequot in what is now Stamford, Connecticut, the churches announced a second day of “ thanksgiving ” to celebrate victory over the heathen savages. During the feasting, the hacked off heads of Natives were kicked through the streets like soccer balls. Even the friendly Wampanoag did not escape the madness. Their chief was beheaded, and his head impaled on a pole in Plymouth, Massachusetts — where it remained on display for 24 years.

The killings became more and more frenzied, with days of thanksgiving feasts being held after each successful massacre. George Washington finally suggested that only one day of Thanksgiving per year be set aside instead of celebrating each and every massacre. Later Abraham Lincoln decreed Thanksgiving Day to be a national legal holiday during the Civil War — on the same day he ordered troops to march against the starving Sioux in Minnesota.

This story doesn’t have quite the same fuzzy feelings associated with it as the one where the Indians and Pilgrims are all sitting down together at the big feast. But we need to learn our true history so it won’t ever be repeated. Next Thanksgiving, when you gather with your loved ones to Thank your Creator for all your blessings, think about the people who only wanted to live their lives and raise their families. They, also took time out to say “ thank you ” for all their blessings.

Useful words and phrases:

  • Feast, n — proslava trijumfa; Banket, gozba, večera (večera).
  • Bound, v — vezivanje.
  • Leave behind, v — ostaviti iza sebe.
  • Smallpox, n — boginje.
  • Wipe out, v — uništiti, uništiti.
  • Peace treaty, n — mirovni sporazum.
  • Zealot, n — fanatični sljedbenik; fanatik.
  • Public domain, n — javne imovine, javnosti.
  • Seize, v — grab, grab.
  • Capture, v — hvatanje.
  • Predawn, adj — zore, rano jutro.
  • Mercenary, n — plaćenik.
  • Club to death, v — štrajk, beat, pretučen na smrt.
  • Huddle, v — publici, okupljaju (zajedno), gomila (jedni drugima).
  • Longhouse, n — Long House (duge, uske zgrade s jedne lokacije u pastoralnom kulture).
  • Ally, n — saveznik.
  • Heathen, adj — Pagan.
  • Savage, n — divljak.
  • Hack off, v — prekinuti.
  • Impale, v — probilo, Pierce, ili punkcija; kretenu (za sve).
  • Frenzy, n — ludilo, bjesnilo; pomama.
  • Massacre, n — masakr; masakr, prebijanje.
  • Set aside, v — odlažu do trenutka prekid.
  • Fuzzy, adj — nejasan, maglovit, mutno.
  • Bless, v — blagoslovi; dati blagoslov.

A sada bih predstaviti vam pesmu prilično ekscentričan američki pisac u drugoj polovini dvadesetog stoljeća, William Seward Burroughs William Seward Burroughs pod nazivom «Molitva zahvalnosti» The Thanksgiving Prayer u performansama autora. Dovoljno ciničan, to opovrgava američki san i razbija stereotipe.

Thanks for the wild turkey and the passenger pigeons, destined to be shit out through wholesome American guts.
Thanks for a continent to despoil and poison.
Thanks for Indians to provide a modicum of challenge and danger.
Thanks for vast herds of bison to kill and skin leaving the carcasses to rot.
Thanks for bounties on wolves and coyotes.
Thanks for the American dream, to vulgarize and to falsify until the bare lies shine through.
Thanks for the KKK. For nigger-killin’ lawmen, feelin’ their notches.
For decent church-goin’ women, with their mean, pinched, bitter, evil faces.
Thanks for “ Kill a Queer for Christ ” stickers.
Thanks for laboratory AIDS.
Thanks for Prohibition and the war against drugs.
Thanks for a country where nobody’s allowed to mind the own business.
Thanks for a nation of finks.
Yes, thanks for all the memories — all right let’s see your arms!
You always were a headache and you always were a bore.
Thanks for the last and greatest betrayal of the last and greatest of human dreams.

Commentaries:

  • Gut, n — Colon; probavnog trakta.
  • Despoil, v — rob, rob; poriču (nešto).
  • Modicum, n — vrlo mala količina.
  • Herd, n — stado, jato (od divljih životinja, kao što su slonovi, antilope, zebre, brtve, kitovi).
  • Rot, v — Rot; Rot, propadanje, kolaps.
  • Bounty, n — velikodušan poklon.
  • KKK Ku-Klux-Klan — Ku Klux Klan. Tajna terorističkih rasističkih organizacija. Stvoren 1865. do veterana Konfederacije armije Confederate Army u Pulaski, NY. Tennessee, promovirati ideje bijele supremacije white supremacy i borbi protiv političkog uticaja «koferašima» carpetbaggers na jugu, nakon građanskog rata Civil War To doprinijeli izbijanju nasilja nad Afroamerikanaca, a tako je bilo zabranjeno u 1869. Međutim, mnogi od njegovih članova i dalje budu aktivni cijeli period za obnovu Reconstruction U . XIX . XIX stoljeća. Mi smo donesenih zakona u cilju suzbijanja aktivnosti KKK Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 Njegovi članovi obučeni u bele haljine s kapuljačom, pokušava uvjeriti žrtve mistične straha od osvete duha, i postao je simbol KKK gori krst fiery cross Organizacija je imala hijerarhijska struktura, a nazvan je «Nevidljivi Empire of the South» Invisible Empire of the South ga je vodio veliki mag Grand Wizard
  • Decent, adj — pristojan, iskren; pristojan, skroman; diskretan.
  • Pinched, adj — iscrpljen.
  • Queer, n — ime bruto homoseksualac.
  • Prohibition, n — «suvo zakon». Zabrana proizvodnju, transport i prodaja alkoholnih pića, osim za medicinske i znanstvene svrhe. Po prvi put takva zabrana poslovala u 13 država u 1846-1855, ali je ispao od strane vlasti države ili proglasio neustavnim. Na prijelazu stoljeća u Sjedinjenim Američkim Državama je razvio uticajan pokret pristalica trezvenosti Temperance Movement Do 1905. na «suvo zakon» djelovao u Kanzasu, Maine, Nebraska i North Dakota. Do početka Prvog svjetskog rata takve zabrane različite težine već postupala u 26 država. Nakon što je američki ulazak u rat postojala je realna potreba da se spasi zalihe žita, i aktivno lobiranje grupa, kao što su anti-alkohol ligi Anti-Saloon League dovela na kraju do usvajanja federalnih mjera zabrane proizvodnju alkoholnih pića. 1917. godine, Kongres usvojio i poslao na odobrenje projekta državama Osamnaesti amandman Eighteenth Amendment Ustava SAD o uvođenju «suvog zakona». Sep 8, 1917 u SAD-u je prekinuta proizvodnja viskija, a od 1. maja, 1919. godine — i pivo. 1. jula, 1919. godine je u potpunosti zabranio prodaju alkoholnih pića u SAD-u, 16. januar, 1920. i stupio na snagu Osamnaesti amandman. Mjere za izmjene i dopune odredbi života su dobili od Federalnog Zakona Volstead Volstead Act Međutim, ubrzo je postalo jasno da su ove mjere su apsolutno nije popularno, a primjena zakona izaziva ozbiljnu štetu privredi. Posljedica donošenja «suvog zakona» je bez presedana porast organiziranog kriminala u vezi sa nezakonite trgovine u alkohol bootlegging a domaćin podzemnih barovi speakeasy budžet zemlje je ozbiljno pogođena nenaplaćenih poreza na alkoholna pića. Pod pritiskom javnog mnijenja u prosincu 1933. godine «suvo zakon» je otkazan Dvadeset Prvi amandman Twenty-first Amendment U nekim državama dugo radi svojih zakona u borbi protiv alkoholizma, od kojih je posljednji bio otkazan u 1966.
  • Fink, n — doušnik, Informer, agent.
  • Betrayal, n — nevjera, izdaja.

Percepcija Dan zahvalnosti, kao što vidimo, je dvosmislen. Tradicija obilježavanja je nastao u teškim i mračnim vremenima za američki narod. I bez obzira na radost i emocionalni oporavak da države se suočavaju na ovaj dan, u smislu modernog Indijanac zahvalnosti — licemjerstvo.

 

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